In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping launched the Belt and Road Initiative. This modern initiative aims to revive the ancient Silk Road and connect China with many neighboring and distant countries and economic blocs. China invests mainly in infrastructure by developing a network of land and maritime roads, facilitating communication, trade and transportation. The various projects under this initiative will make China a leader in international trade and an attractive region for giant partners. This paper analyzes the Chinese presence in Eurasia after the launch of the Belt and Road Initiative and the contemporary geopolitics of Eurasia in light of the great Chinese expansion. This study contributes to clarifying the China-Central Asia relationship and represents this relationship within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative. This study is based on data issued by governmental institutions and international research centers, which makes it an important reference in Central Asian studies. This paper concluded that the Belt and Road Initiative will have a significant impact on the economy of Central Asia and its geopolitical position through the great Chinese openness and dependence on Central Asia in China’s regional and international trade. The paper also discusses the Sino-Russian contrast that may arise with the Chinese penetration into Central Asia.
Keywords: Eurasian Geopolitics, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Chinese Foreign Policy, Central Asia, Caucasus, Post-Soviet Eurasia.
At present Uzbekistan is the largest Central Asian exporter of labor and education migration. Remittances play important role in the national economy. The article examines the emergence and main factors of migration in contemporary Uzbekistan. Based on the study of diversity research literature and sources, it was used the comparative study of key trends, dynamics, and transformation of labor and educational migration from Uzbekistan to Russia, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey. It elaborates on the internal factors of the migration issue in Uzbekistan and provides an analysis of the status, conditions, and challenges of the migrants in foreign countries.
Keywords: Migration, Uzbekistan, Russia, South Korea, Turkey, mobility.
After Mirziyoyev came to power in December 2016, impressive developments have taken place in Uzbekistan’s relations with the Central Asian republics, regional and external powers, and international institutions. These developments have led some to concur that Uzbekistan is going through remarkable or milestone/drastic changes in its foreign policy. The objective of this paper is to analyze Uzbekistan’s foreign policy under Mirziyoyev, in comparison with that of his predecessor, and to reveal whether there have been changes or continuities in Uzbekistan’s foreign policy under his administration. The study puts forth that Uzbekistan under Mirziyoyev has continued to maintain its military neutrality and prioritize Central Asia in its foreign policy. This demonstrates that Karimov’s core foreign policy strategy has been maintained under Mirziyoyev. The only difference has been his country’s constructive foreign policy approach to its relations with the regional and external actors.