A route, via ships and underwater electric connectors established across the Caspian Sea, could enable goods from Central Asia to be transported to Turkey and through Turkey to other markets. Natural gas-rich countries could transport gas to European markets via this route by converting their natural gas into LNG. In cases where building LNG installations would be uneconomical, they can export energy directly, by conveying gas-generated electricity via underwater electric connectors across the Caspian Sea or by electricity-generating power ships. With the transformation of this route into a new trade corridor due to energy transportation, other products could also be transported to Europe more easily and this would positively impact their economic development, attract investors and promote regional cooperation. This dynamism may create a new commercial corridor for the global supply chain in the context of the Silk Road concept but separate from China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
Keywords: Central Asia, New Silk Road, Belt and Road Initiative, Energy Security, Globalization, LNG
Due to the ongoing global and regional economic, political and social processes, educational systems of several Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), once being parts of a unified educational system, have been drifting away from each other, transforming in their unique ways, under the pressure of their local circumstances. The article discusses the evolution and the current state of higher education institutions (HEI) in Central Asian countries, concentrating on such topics as the accessibility of tertiary education, its funding, digitalization, global mobility, and accreditation processes. The
systems are analyzed and compared within the given categories. The purpose of this article is to characterize some trends in the development of higher education systems in these countries, which are characteristic of the current period of their political and social development.
Keywords: Higher education, Central Asia, accessibility, funding, mobility, digitalization, accreditation
The great Chinese economic progress has become a source of concern to the United States, so former U.S. President Donald Trump announced the trade war to curb and slow Chinese economic progress following the vision of the U.S. The Trump administration has highlighted economic protectionism against what he calls “unfairness.” Still, it is becoming inevitable that applying this strategy is no longer viable in current foreign policy, given that the world is no longer unipolar and that the U.S. is defying fierce competition by China. A major economic powerhouse. This research paper comprehensively discusses the historical evolution of events that made China a major player, the direction the U.S. has followed in adapting to such change, and the new balance of power-driven by emerging markets. This academic work will aim to understand how the U.S.-International role is redefined under the grasp of China evolved and enhanced international trade dominance. The study will mainly target how the trade war between the two giants may proceed to the next level and create serious international trade challenges.
Keywords: U.S.-China Relations, Trade War, U.S. Foreign Policy, World Order, Tariffs